Why Study Spanish: A Lesson Plan

Every year for the last three years, I’ve completely devoted my second day of school to the topic “but why are we even learning Spanish.” Since I teach middle-schoolers in an area where there aren’t a ton of native speakers around, sometimes it’s hard for the kids to think outside of their bubble and understand that Spanish has real world importance, relevance, and benefits to them. My second day of school is all about getting them to buy into the fact that learning Spanish is a skill that will help them in their real lives outside the classroom.

I love this lesson the first week of school not only because it’s important to talk about why we’re doing what we’re doing, but also because it’s super easy to update every year (an easy prep for me)! Since it’s a very learner-driven lesson, it lets me stay in the 90% Target Language zone to give instructions, even though the meat of the lesson and the students will be mostly in English. If we’re going to have a lesson in English, at least I can stay in Spanish myself the whole time.

After our warm-up, I start class off by explaining to students that it is very important to me that they are able to answer the question “why are you taking Spanish,” beyond a default “because my mom is making me.” I emphasize that I teach Spanish because I think it’s fun, but I also teach Spanish because I think it will greatly improve and enrich their lives. I usually have to use a little bit of English here in my Level 1 classes, but not my Level 2s. I point to the blank bulletin board at the back of the room that says “¿Por qué estudias español?” on it, and tell them we’re going to be filling it up today. While I’m talking, I hand out a blank chart with a list of resources on the x-axis and two columns on the y-axis that say “Three reasons to study Spanish presented” and “Best reason to study Spanish presented.” This paper is the anchor of our lesson for the day (make a copy of the Google Doc here).


The first resource listed is always a video. The past few years I’ve used Lindsay Does Language’s “9 Reasons to Learn Spanish.” It’s modern, quirky, and pretty funny, and I can always give them some solid input in Spanish beforehand to set it up (she is a girl from England and she’s funny but she talks really fast, etc). This is a good opportunity to introduce “escribir” and “mirar” as well when giving kids instructions.

After we watch the video twice, students write down their favorite three reasons to study Spanish from the video in the middle column, and then pick their favorite out of the three for the last column. I emphasize to them that the last column (the personal favorite column) will be different for each person and will depend on each person’s life experiences and goals. Starting with the video is great since we review the first resource as a class and can work the kinks out together. After the video, the real fun begins.

The meat of the lesson centers around a jigsaw activity. If you’re not familiar with a jigsaw activity, it generally goes like this:

  1. Students are divided into groups. Each group receives a different resource, and that group becomes “experts” in their resource. In this case, each “expert” group receives a different article or infographic about why learning a language is important. Since my students are seated at tables in groups of four, I generally will take one person from each table and divide the class into four bigger groups (so they’re all in groups with no one who sits at their normal table). Then, I give each group one of four resources (this year I used Why Learn Another Language When You Already Speak English?, The Benefits of Learning Languages Infographic6 Reasons Why Everyone Should Really Learn Spanish, and Why Learn Spanish? 10 Great reasons)
  2. Students become “experts” in their resource. In this case, I give students 2 minutes to silently read through their article or infographic and decide individually (silently!!) which three reasons to study Spanish presented in their article are the best ones. After two silent minutes, they must come to a consensus in their expert group about which reasons are the best. I like making them come to a consensus because it forces them to argue with each other about which reasons to study Spanish are more important (love it).
  3. Once each expert group has reached a consensus about the most important points of their resource, they have to go back to their original tables and report on what they read about. Again, none of the kids at their original tables have the same resource, so the students depend on each other to be able to complete their chart for each article. If you have a slacker in an expert group, his or her table group suffers, which forces everybody to participate (peer pressure!!).
  4. Before they start presenting to their original groups, I instruct them to stand up and present their ideas formally to their tablemates, NOT to just switch papers and copy down each other’s answers. I do this to start getting students used to talking with their peers, and also to get them used to standing up and presenting. Spanish is not a class where you can sit quietly the entire year, so I think it’s important that they get a chance to stand up and talk during the first week (even though it is in English). I love that they’re only presenting to their tables, not the whole class. This reduces anxiety, since there’s so much noise while everyone is presenting at the same time, and eases them into the scary idea of talking in front of the class.
  5. Each kid fills out their paper based on what their classmates present, but they also have to grapple with the material a bit individually when they think about which reason presented in that article is most important TO THEM in that third column. To complete their table, they have to pick out the reasons from each presentation that are most relevant to their lives, so the activity stays very personal.

Once the jigsaw activity is over, I bring the whole class back together and show one last video. I love this one because it’s short; it makes them think, and it makes a bunch of really great points about language learning in general that can be applied to Spanish. After they’ve filled out their tables based on the last video, the students have about 18 different reasons to study Spanish that they’ve gotten from videos, articles, and each other (NOT from me, which I love). The last row that students have to fill out asks them to list their top three reasons for studying Spanish, and at this point they can add their own if their reason to take Spanish hasn’t been presented that day.

Their exit ticket is that they have to write down their number one reason for learning Spanish. On small cut-out pieces of paper, and I also ask them to write down their goal for learning the language. I tell them that this isn’t a class goal (I don’t want a million papers that say “my goal is to get an A”), but this is a language-learning goal for life (like “I want to be able to have a conversation with my aunt from Puerto Rico,” or “I want to be able to talk to my friend in Spanish and not have people understand us in the hallway”). I’m always surprised by the quality answers some of the students come up with.


My favorite part of the lesson is that I staple the exit tickets to the bulletin board at the back of class, and that is where they stay all year. I love that we have that constant reminder of why Spanish is important, and a constant reminder of a real world goal for learning language. The best thing of all about that reminder is that it comes from the students themselves, not from me.

I’m really excited to be finishing up the first week of school and to dive into the Spanish learning next week, but I do also always love starting the year off with big picture reflection on why we’re spending time together in Spanish class. Do you spend time on “why Spanish is important” at the beginning of the year? How do you get your classes to buy into 36 weeks of language learning? Let me know 🙂

Student perspective: is it okay to lie on language tests?

Raise your hand if you’ve ever said something like this to your world language students: “Remember – I’m not grading you on what you say. I’m grading you on how you say it. It’s okay to lie on your test if you can’t remember the Spanish word you want to use!”

This, of course, is an excellent testing strategy for students. The most recent conversation I had like this in my classroom was during our “giving directions” unit. One of our test questions asked students to write out driving directions from their house to school. “Your directions don’t have to be accurate,” I advised them, “just make sure you include a few different turns so I know you can use the structures we’ve learned.” This gives students the freedom to show off the language they know, avoid the language that gives them trouble, and stress more about finishing their test than writing long paragraphs of accurate directions from their house thirty minutes away from school (not to mention it makes grading easier for me).

Let’s think about this from a student’s perspective…

Fast forward a few months and the roles are reversed. I am sitting in the student’s chair at a language school in Costa Rica, discussing current events in Spanish with my (phenomenal) Spanish teacher for the month, Sandra. I am taking the ACTFL Proficiency exam in a few weeks, and I have to prove that I can speak and write Spanish at an advanced level in order to qualify as a World Language National Board Candidate. Often ACTFL asks opinion questions on controversial topics in order to see how a learner manages the target language when discussing complex issues. As I try to explain how insane the 2016 presidential elections have been in the United States, I get flustered because I’m passionate about what’s going on in my country, and I want to tell my Costa Rican friend about the nuances, but I’m tripping over my Spanish words. Sandra looks at me and says, “Emily. ACTFL is not grading you on your opinion. ACTFL is grading you on how you use the language. It doesn’t matter if you lie on the test as long as you use language at an advanced level. Don’t stress so much about expressing your opinion accurately.”

“But Sandra,” I say back to her, “this is really important to me! There are crazy things going on in the US right now, and I want to talk about them with you!”

You see where this is going, right? This is when I thought of my students, and a lightbulb went off over my head. I almost covered my mouth in horror. “Oh my gosh, Sandra, I have this exact conversation with my students all the time.”

It’s okay to let them lie on assessments because I’m teaching them good testing strategies, isn’t it? 

Yes…but…having to lie about something important to you just to get a good grade is kind of annoying, right?? Have you ever watched a red-headed kid in Spanish 1 and write down “yo soy rubia” on an assessment because spelling “pelirroja” is hard? I have! And yeah, the student could get a perfect score on the test with “rubia,” but when I think of my identity as a teacher, my number one goal is not “all of my students have a perfect grade,” my number one goal is “my students can communicate in a foreign language about things that matter to them.” I love teaching a foreign language because you can give students a chance to get so creative and crazy with it! It gives them another outlet to express themselves, something all adolescents tend to crave. Every time I tell students it’s okay to lie on a test, it carries an undertone of “Expressing yourself accurately isn’t the most important thing. Getting a perfect grade is the most important thing.” And I’m sure as educators, that’s not the type of thing most of us enjoy promoting.

But let’s get real; grades matter to everyone. How do we teach good testing strategies AND emphasize that we care about the things our students really want to say? 

The emphasis on what we want kids to know, understand and do should line up exactly with our assessments. In every unit and every day, I want my students to understand that I care about them and their ability to express themselves in the target language according to their personal interests and passions. However, this doesn’t always line up correctly with what our school district wants them to know and do.

Take, for example, a really common thematic unit for Level 1 – sports. To pass my county’s final exam, my students need to be able to say something like, “I need a helmet, a glove, and a bat to play baseball.” BUT out of my 60 Spanish 1 students, maybe 3 of them actually play baseball. If I have a kid who is on an insanely good bowling team, how am I going to keep him engaged through the baseball vocabulary, which he need for his exam, and also give him time to talk about bowling, his passion? What about the dozen kids who hate sports and don’t play? What about the girls every year who end up in an argument with the football players in class about whether or not dance team is a sport?

Like all meaningful and engaging units, this requires a little more work on my end and a little more work on the students’ end. By the time our sports unit hits, I already know which students are varsity athletes, which ones are involved in non-conventional sports, and which ones would rather sing on a stage in front of 500 people than run a mile in gym class. So, I always include the curriculum-mandated vocabulary and offer up student-driven vocabulary based on their interests and passions (even better if they find this vocab themselves!). The students have access to both mandatory and student-specific vocab, AND they have an opportunity to use both on their summative assessment for that unit. On my test this opportunity looks like an open-ended presentational writing prompt: “Write to a Spanish-speaking friend about your favorite sport or after-school activity. How often do you do it, where do you do it, and what do you need to do it?”

Does this mean that every student is going to jump at the opportunity to learn extra vocab so they can talk about their passions? Absolutely not. Will I still give students credit for lying about their passion for baseball on their test when they really only care about playing piano? Yup. But in giving them the tools they need to express themselves accurately from the start, I indicate to my students that I care about their true thoughts and interests. I show love to the kids whose passions lie outside our official curriculum. I still give them testing strategies and hold them accountable for the knowledge required by the county, but I also give them the tools they need for accurate expression if they want it, which is really what being a language teacher is all about.

My takeaway from listening to my friend/tutor/colleague Sandra tell me to lie on the ACTFL exam is that a) lying actually IS a good testing strategy, but b) I need to make sure I’m emphasizing to my students that I care about their passions from the beginning of each and every unit. Have you ever sat in a student’s chair and had a striking realization about the way you teach? How do you give students opportunities for expression on assessments that go outside the curriculum? Send me a comment and let me know!

photo credit: Common Ground International

What a Nicaraguan slum taught me about PBL

I just wrapped up a pretty inspirational week in Granada, Nicaragua, as part of my summer professional development abroad. Through a Spanish immersion trip with Common Ground International, I spent the week with some awesome teachers, doctors, physician assistants, and nurses, working in a Granada shanty town in the morning and taking Spanish classes in the afternoon. I learned a lot about Nicaragua, but the biggest takeaways from the week centered around our morning community service projects.

One of my goals for my summer professional development is to seek out opportunities for my students to use their Spanish outside the classroom and give back to the global community (all the more important since our school is officially embracing Project Based Learning next year). Common Ground did a great job of finding us a service project that both met our goals of practicing the language AND helped out a local organization in a direct, meaningful way. Our service in Granada made me think a lot about student service learning, and the more I thought about it, the more I realized it was the PERFECT service project for us as Spanish students “at that time in that setting,” as our friends at the National Board would appreciate. I saw three reasons for the project’s success that would be applicable to any PBL service learning attempts in my classroom: 

1) There was a genuine need for our help, AND we were able to meet that need.

We were collaborating with a small Christian school run by American missionaries in a very poor shanty town in the outskirts of the city. The neighborhood is extremely impoverished, with high crime and unemployment rates and low health and literacy rates. The school is trying to start classes and lectures for the community to help address some of the health problems there (nutrition education to decrease diabetes, smoking cessation, alcoholism supports, etc). Before giving these talks, the school wanted to conduct a survey of the neighborhood (affectionately named “el Pantanal” or “the swamp”) to determine their needs and figure out which health programs would be most beneficial. Our mission as Spanish students was to walk door to door conducting these surveys. The organization NEEDED these surveys to be completed – if not us, they would have looked for someone else to complete them. It wasn’t a contrived project, which made us feel like our work was worthwhile – a crucial component to guarantee student buy in. 

2) We were stretching a little bit outside our comfort zone – where the learning really happens. 

At this point I would like to be real with you and say that this project COMPLETELY freaked me out. As a tall skinny blonde girl, no part of me wanted to skip around a Nicaraguan slum knocking on doors to ask if anyone in the house had a history of alcoholism, depression, or chronic diarrhea. (“HOLA! Soy de los Estados Unidos and no I am not here to give you anything, I just want to ask you fifty extremely personal questions!!”). Despite my gringa fears, the experience was predictably eye-opening and rewarding. We stayed together in a big group with some help from people in the community, so I always felt safe. The majority of the people we surveyed were super open and helpful, and full of hope. Adriana, the missionary growing and running the school in Pantanal, spoke to us about the difference between poverty and misery, and the people we spoke to all morning were poor, but they weren’t miserable. They all talked about the importance of education for their kids and how they want them in school to advance their future. They spoke about health issues and problems getting food on the table, but never in a way that tried to evoke pity. They just were telling us about their lives, which brings me to my next point.

3) The project met our instructional goals of using and improving our Spanish. 

When we started our surveys, we were all focused on making sure the pronunciation of each question was right and trying really hard to read our script correctly, but quickly the surveys became less about a Spanish reading exercise and more about human connection. We stopped worrying about language accuracy and started doing everything we could to communicate understanding – our affective filter and our fears of making mistakes went out the window as we listened to these people share their fears and their wishes. It was a truly language rich experience, and hit those Cs of culture, community, and connection really hard. It was a perfect way for us to learn, give back, and feel good about doing it. 

Okay, so how am I going to apply these concepts in my classroom?

I went into my service trying to find ways for my students to give back in Nicaragua, and I discovered that the only genuine need my students could realistically meet that would help out the work Americans are doing in el Pantanal is : hit up their parents for money (ughhh! Such a frustrating realization). The folks we were helping in Pantanal told us that even classroom supplies and donations aren’t the best to contribute, since it would be best to give money that the school would then spend in the local community, supporting the local jobs and the local economy even further. Since we have so many fundraisers at our school already, I had already crossed financial donations off the list possible projects. It is possible that we could have a Spanish event that we charge admission to as a fundraiser (like an after school feria/market to go with our shopping unit; a Hispanic food festival to go with our food unit; etc). My mind is already moving through ideas for them that would both help out the neighborhood financially AND help us with our linguistic goals. 

Beyond trying to figure out a way for my students to help out in Nicaragua, however, my biggest takeaway was the need to WORK to find opportunities for my students to help out in our own community. Trying to find a genuine need students can meet in a language-rich way requires research, and networking in the local community to find people who are already working with Hispanic populations in town. Possibilities could include tutoring elementary school kids or partnering with an organization who works with new immigrants to the US. The folks at Common Ground did a lot of investigating before partnering with an organization that had a need that Spanish students could meet in a meaningful way. I came away with a reality check – that finding a meaningful student service opportunity requires research, time, and networking, but I also came away with a renewed sense of social responsibility and a desire to show my students how important and rewarding it can be to give back outside your comfort zone. 

It truly was an amazing week, and I gained a lot of perspective and inspiration as I head into our school’s first PBL year, but that hasn’t turned into concrete service ideas yet. What are your awesome student service activities? Have you found some meaningful service learning projects that also meet your instructional goals? Let me know in the comments below! 

Four reasons I’m doing summer PD abroad


As I write this, I’m hoping the passenger next to me can’t hear that I’m blasting Adele through my headphones to drown out the conversations on an airplane destined for San Jose, Costa Rica. I’m headed on a Spanish immersion trip for teachers with Common Ground International and so far they’ve done a phenomenal job answering all of my anal questions and preparing us for an unforgettable experience. I’ll be staying with host families for three weeks, one in Granada, Nicaragua, and two in Santo Domingo, a suburb of San Jose. 

Like most teachers, I’m a pretty dedicated list-maker, and all about “keeping the end in mind.” So of course, before I actually embark upon this almost-month-long Central American excursion, I need to outline my goals for this trip. 

1) Improve MY Spanish. This was priority number one for booking this trip in the first place. This upcoming school year, I’ll be going for my National Board Certification, and as a world language teacher I have to achieve an Advanced proficiency level in Spanish on the ACTFL written and oral exams. After a few years of teaching Spanish 1 & 2 and using adequate Spanish with my patient native-speaking colleagues, my Spanish needs a boost. I’ve never been able to achieve ACTFL advanced, so I’m hoping three weeks of one on one Spanish classes and living with a host family will give my language the push it needs. I’m going to commit myself to spending as much time with native speakers as possible, which is different from my times abroad in earlier years, when my priorities swung more towards adventuring with my new interesting ex-pat friends. Now that my boyfriend and I have turned each other into homebodies and teaching has turned me into a person who unapologetically goes to bed a 830pm, I feel like my urge to get in on the backpacker scene has all but evaporated. If I’m going to make friends in-country, it will be through my host family, not through the folks staying at the hostel down the street, which is going to help my Spanish immensely. 

2) Find opportunities for my students. I’m sure the connections I’m building on this trip will help me create more authentic experiences in the classroom for my students, and I’m hoping to build relationships in the countries that my students may be able to benefit from. I work at one of the best public middle-schools in the area that draws from a relatively high-ses community. I would love to find a way on this trip for them to give back to students who are less fortunate than them, though it might be a tricky thing to accomplish. This year our school is also transitioning to PBL-based instruction, so building relationships with other teachers in the country can only help with bringing Spanish to life for my students.

3) Aprovechar. I want to lean in to this experience abroad and really take advantage of it for all its worth. I’ve definitely been guilty of going abroad and spending hours in an Internet cafe talking to my friends at home. I am committing to staying in touch with my loved ones, but I want to try not to spend a ton of time thinking about what I’m missing (which is a lot, sorry family, I love you). I am going to be asking my host family to spend time with them and act on their suggestions for adventures, which I’m sure they will happily provide. 

4) Grow my PLN. I save this goal for last, since part of my goal is going to be to unplug from my phone, but one of my summer projects is to get more involved with other teachers online. I’m going to use this experience to share with them and grow that PLN that my principal keeps bugging us about. There’s not much of a better way to test out the waters online than to shamelessly share travel photos. Maybe I’ll finally download Instagram too (omg!).

I’m excited about this opportunity to grow as a Spanish teacher and will try to post on how I’m coming in achieving my PD goals. Have you ever spent time abroad as part of your summer professional development? What were your goals before you left? Did you accomplish them? Let me know in the comments below 🙂

Pretérito review Day 2

Earlier this week I discussed how my attempt at reviewing all of the million rules we’ve learned in the preterite in Spanish Two flopped big time – mostly because there was no communicative purpose to my grammar-heavy project!! Today, I tried to change that.

To start off with, I did want to give my students the chance to wrap their heads around ALL of the preterite rules they’re required to know to advance to Spanish 3. Ar/er/ir, car/zar/gar, leer/oir/creer, boot verbs, irregular stems…the list goes on forever!! I told them they were going to get 12 minutes (and ONLY 12 minutes) to take notes on everything we’re learned using this website from Barbara Nelson.  I gave them a blank piece of pink copy paper, and told them to put their headphones on and/or get in the zone to copy down all of the rules. Since I teach middle school, I usually throw in a note-taking lesson with this type of activity as well (Do I want you to copy every single verb conjugation down? NO! Do I want you to take the notes you need to remember all the topics we’ve covered? YES!)

After our 12-minute note taking session, my students produced varying degrees of beautiful notes on the preterite rules in a form that made sense TO THEM. I was surprised with how intently they worked (though I shouldn’t have been; they’re awesome). A couple students finished, but most didn’t, so I told them to use the notes they had as a springboard to help them finish the rest of the notes for homework. After that, I told them to partner up with a student from their table and get ready to write some sentences.

We do activities like this often in my class (I’m pretty sure I stole it from Project CRISS training). The basic premise is that there are blank pieces of posters taped all around the room with a prompt on them. Today, the prompt was a place (restaurant, party, house, park, etc). Each pair has one minute at each poster to come up with a sentence in the preterite tense about something someone DID at that particular place. After one minute, I’d play some music for ten seconds to cue them to walk to the next poster to do the same thing. They came up with some pretty great, creative (and correct!) sentences.

My challenge to the students was NOT to repeat verbs – they couldn’t use a verb someone else had written on the poster, and they couldn’t use a verb they had written on a previous poster. They were allowed to take their preterite notes with them, so they had plenty of verb ideas on hand to use. They also were told to correct any mistakes they saw on each poster they saw. I always love seeing them correcting each other’s work (so I don’t have to!)

At the end of the activity, each pair gets back to the poster they started writing on. Then, they have to present to the class 1) any common errors they saw, and 2) their favorite sentence on the poster. This gets them excited about seeing who will pick the sentences they wrote, which ups the quality of their work too, of course. After each presenter, I ask for “dos palmadas por favor!” (two claps please!) as an applause and a behavior management trick – it keeps them focused.

I love this type of activity, and I was so excited to see them applying their preterite rules in an entertaining and engaging way. They also walked out of class singing Shakira in Spanish since I was playing Waka Waka every 60 seconds to cue them to rotate to the next poster – culture bonus!!

Do you ever do activities like this one in you class? What effective activities have you done to teach and review the preterite? Let me know in the comments below!

¡Pretérit-os!

This is my first year teaching Spanish 2, and I am really struggling with how to help my students remember all of the irregular preterite rules they are responsible for on our curriculum. In an uninspired, tired state, I consulted Pinterest, and found this project the helps students to review the preterite tense by making a cereal box!

Before you read any further, let me just say this project flopped for a variety of reasons. One: there is no communicative purpose to making a cereal box with grammar notes on it. my students kept asking me questions like “What does this have to do with anything?” and “Why cereal? This doesn’t make sense!”

I generally agreed with them, which is why I put off assigned this project in the first place. My students are used to having a real, communicative, proficiency based purpose to everything we do. This project was so exclusively structure-based that it didn’t meet my standards, or their expectations of me. My class time would be better devoted to having them practice using the preterite in real-world contexts. Writing stories, sentences about what they did in a certain place, etc. They needed to see the words in action, not write about them in a thinly veiled excuse for them to take notes.

Next year, I will focus the notes where I like to focus them: at home. I also think I want to introduce the preterite all at once, instead of chunks across weeks. I want to do a preterite unit that focuses much more heavily on USING the preterite, instead of memorizing vocabulary charts. I guess I will have to write more about that next year. For now, I will let one of my classes finish this project, then move on.